The Food Pyramid first became widely-known in 1992 as an easy way of representing daily serving recommendations from each basic food group.

At its base level, this plan suggested six to 11 servings of grains; on its next tier it recommended 2-5 daily servings of vegetables and fruit; while its top level included meats, poultry, fish, eggs, beans and nuts.


Carbs provide our bodies with energy, making up 50-60% of total caloric intake. Carbs come in both simple and complex varieties; complex carbohydrates found in whole grains, beans and vegetables contain important sources of fiber, vitamins and minerals while simpler carbs, such as sugars should only be eaten occasionally.

When the Food Guide Pyramid was initially unveiled in 1992, it was widely criticized for suggesting an unbalanced, high-carbohydrate diet – an assumption which proved inaccurate. It recommended eating six to 11 servings daily of complex carbohydrates like bread, cereal, pasta, rice and potatoes along with generous servings of fruit and dairy products; it also encouraged Americans to limit their fat consumption without distinguishing between healthy and unhealthy fats or highlighting any possible health benefits of oils.

In 2005, the Food Pyramid was overhauled into something more balanced and focused on physical activity; however, this did not completely resolve all its shortcomings; for instance, its bottom level still placed too much emphasis on bread and cereals. Furthermore, its fats category also neglected certain forms of trans and saturated fats which are far more harmful than monounsaturated and polyunsaturated ones.

Reminding ourselves to consume basic levels of the pyramid is vital in order to gain access to more nutritious fruits and vegetables, dairy products and meat alternatives on a regular basis, thus providing our bodies with essential nutrients required for healthy functioning.


Anna-Britt Agnsater, chief of the test kitchen for Swedish grocery cooperative Kooperativa Forbundet at a time of rising food costs, came up with the initial food pyramid concept in 1974. Published in KF’s magazine and showing basic foods at its base – bread and cereals, potatoes, milk and margarine); followed by an expanding section for vegetables and fruits to supplement them; with meat, fish and eggs as its peak apex – has since become an extremely effective way to share dietary advice.

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Food advisories had been developed before, either through textual descriptions or as circular food circles; but this one was the first visual food display that brought together different food categories into one visual display and recommended how much should be eaten from each level. Furthermore, it used pyramid shape to highlight that more vegetables and fruit should be consumed than meat; no fats were recommended generally (although trans and saturated fats as well as polyunsaturated fats were mentioned as possible sources).

The 1992 USDA food pyramid featured four levels. It recommended eating 6-11 servings daily of bread and cereal; at least five daily servings from fruits and vegetables on level 2, at most three servings from dairy products on level 3 and two or fewer per day from meat, fish nuts beans or legumes (the bottom shelf).

This latter category, commonly referred to as the ‘meat group” in American diets, includes beef, pork, lamb and poultry. Due to the similar nutrient profiles between plant-based proteins and those derived from animals such as soy products that resemble meat or fish and soy-based alternatives as well as other vegetarian sources such as beans lentils and chickpeas in this grouping of protein sources.

Fruits & Vegetables

Visual presentations can be especially effective for providing diet advice. A pyramid, pie chart or plate displaying different sections for fruits, vegetables, proteins and grains can quickly convey what constitutes a healthful diet – while making the information easily digestible makes the message even more appealing, particularly among populations with lower literacy rates.

Anna-Britt Agnsater, an educator at the test kitchen for KF Kooperativa Forbundet cooperative store in Sweden, created the original food pyramid in 1974. Her design was based around basic foods being both cost-effective and nutritious; with supplements like fruits and vegetables adding additional nutrients for healthy living. Agnsater’s pyramid was published in an issue of their magazine and quickly became an invaluable nutrition resource.

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Most countries use a similar approach when classifying food groups into food groups, with slight variations between countries in how these are presented. The U.S. Food Guide Pyramid was released in 1992 and later replaced by MyPyramid; it recommends six to 11 servings daily of complex carbohydrates like bread, cereal, rice pasta potatoes along with generous amounts of fruits and vegetables; its top level also contained dairy, protein foods fats and sugars as recommended in 1992 by FDA Food Guide Pyramid and MyPyramid respectively.

One criticism of the Food Guide Pyramid and MyPyramid versions is their tendency to discourage fat consumption by portraying all fats as equal; research indicates otherwise; moreover, suggesting large intakes of dairy increases calcium consumption resulting in osteoporosis and bone fractures; lastly, its recommendation that dairy be consumed regularly encourages overconsumption which leads to osteoporosis and fractures; meanwhile most recent food guides such as Oldways recommendations acknowledge certain types of fat are essential components of healthy diet.


The base level of the food pyramid contains dairy products like milk, yogurt and cheese; two or more servings should be consumed each day in order to build and repair muscle tissue. On top of the pyramid are meats, fish and poultry along with nuts and seeds which provide proteins, fiber and healthy fats while being high sources of iron and vitamin B12. It is advised to consume these items sparingly.

MyPyramid replaced the US government food pyramid in 2005, placing too much emphasis on grains while not adequately conveying their importance. Furthermore, MyPyramid did not address healthy fat consumption or encourage eating an assortment of fruits and vegetables.

Studies from the 1960s and 70s demonstrated that saturated fats found in many animal products such as red meat increase cholesterol levels, leading to heart disease. Meanwhile, polyunsaturated fats such as those found in plant oils or certain fish reduce this lipid level – this new food pyramid reflects this significant scientific development.

Avoid foods and beverages high in sugar, salt and calories like soft drinks, candy, cookies and cakes. A balanced diet must consist of all food groups eaten regularly throughout the day.

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Anna-Britt Agnsater of Kooperativa Forbundet (KF), a Swedish retail cooperative chain, first conceptualized the food pyramid to represent all types of nutritious food one should eat. Her idea was to include basic foods at the bottom tier – such as vegetables and fruit – then move up through grain foods into meat alternatives and finally herbs, spices, beans and nuts at the top tier of this visual aid.

Meat & Alternatives

People who opt to forgo meat and animal products (see Vegetarianism and Veganism ) need to find alternate sources of protein, like whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds which contain both insoluble and soluble fiber that may help lower cholesterol and contribute to weight loss.

The 2005 USDA food guide pyramid, later rebranded MyPyramid in 2011, replaced its 1992 counterpart and was designed to highlight that individuals should consume a wide range of foods. It featured no vertical sections like its predecessor did and instead encouraged people to consume more fruits and vegetables while still meeting nutritional guidelines for grains, meats and dairy.

In addition to increasing fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber intake, the pyramid promoted low-fat milk products, whole grain breads and cereals with plenty of dietary fiber and other starchy foods as part of a healthful diet. Furthermore, healthful oils were encouraged but treated equally despite saturated fat’s more harmful impact.

The Food Guide Pyramid grouping together meats and other proteins like eggs, nuts and soy into one category called “meat and alternatives” includes seitan, tempeh, pressed tofu and textured vegetable protein as vegetarian meat analogues; other vegetarian alternatives may include seitan, tempeh, pressed tofu and TVP. Work to develop cultured and lab-grown meat alternatives is ongoing but technical challenges such as cost and palatability remain; our goal should be creating meat alternatives similar enough in appearance, taste and texture that compete with traditional livestock-based traditional meat but healthier alternatives are created –